The Enigma Project - SARCNET

School Amateur Radio Club Network
School Amateur Radio Club Network
School Amateur Radio Club Network
School Amateur Radio Club Network
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The Enigma Project
In May 2018 we visited the The Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park in the UK. It left a lasting impression on us: How the work done there by the British, and the earlier work by the Polish, was instrumental in bringing about an early end to World War II, saving countless lives. Central to their effort was decoding messages from the infamous German Enigma machine.

Bletchley Park Mansion and the Enigma Machine
We always wanted to commemorate this experience by writing something about it for school students here. However, we are not historians and there are already so many on-line resources, including some very good Enigma machine software simulators, so we wondered how we could contribute in some other way? In the end we decided to start a project of our own: To build a working Enigma machine toy for kids.

We started by researching how the Enigma machine worked. Our first effort was to build a software simulator of the Enigma machine, written in Python 3. However, this was just a proof of concept, to show that we had correctly understood the design of the real Enigma machine. After testing this program against authentic, historical, messages, from different models of the machine, we progressed to the next stage of building a battery-operated, toy Enigma machine.
Enigma machine software simulator
Our python 3 Enigma Machine simulator program, is here and the output is here. Please note that this program is still under development and testing. So far it has been verified to work correctly on 9/11, 3-rotor messages and 3/3, 4-rotor messages. We note that authentic, historical messages, complete with the full Enigma machine settings and decrypted message keys are somewhat hard to come by... There is a scene in the movie "The imitation game" where the BP team are ordered to "burn everything". So, maybe that's why? We don't know.
References
How it works
Here is brief recap of how the Enigma machine works. See the above references for more details:
  • When one of 26 letter keys (A-Z) is pressed on the keyboard, it is scrambled progressively by:
    • The plugboard wiring;
    • 3 or 4 rotors, each with specific wiring, in the forward, or right-to-left, direction;
    • the static reflector wiring;
    • the same 3 or 4 rotors, but in the reverse, or left-to-right, direction;
    • and finally, the plugboard wiring again.
  • Each stage is a simple substitution cipher: The rotors have 26 substitutions, the plugboard has 13 pairs of substitutions
  • The message is further scrambled using the following methods:
    • Inserting cables into the plugboard (usually 10 out of a possible 13). Each cable creates a symmetrical substitution of keys and lamps.
    • Setting the rotor starting positions
    • Offsetting the rotor positions with a ring
    • When a button is pressed, but before any output is displayed:
      • If any rotor is at one or two predetermined notch positions on its ring, the rotor to its left is advanced one step
      • The right hand rotor is unconditionally advanced one step
  • The output is then illuminated on one of 26 letter lamps (A-Z)
  • The output changes each time a key is pressed, even if it is the same key. However, the output cannot be the same as the keyed letter
  • There is no space. Uncommon letters, like X, may be used instead.
  • The enigma machine can be used symmetrically, for either encryption or description, with exactly the same starting settings
Sample Output
Enigma Machine Simulator. Version 1.4
Copyright (c) 2020, Julie VK3FOWL and Joe VK3YSP
For the School Amateur Radio Club Network https://www.sarcnet.org/
This is free software released into the public domain under the GNU General Public License

Configuration:

Rotor Name:                       I
Rotor Forward Wiring:             EKMFLGDQVZNTOWYHXUSPAIBRCJ
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             UWYGADFPVZBECKMTHXSLRINQOJ
Rotor Notch Positions:            Q

Rotor Name:                       II
Rotor Forward Wiring:             AJDKSIRUXBLHWTMCQGZNPYFVOE
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             AJPCZWRLFBDKOTYUQGENHXMIVS
Rotor Notch Positions:            E

Rotor Name:                       III
Rotor Forward Wiring:             BDFHJLCPRTXVZNYEIWGAKMUSQO
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             TAGBPCSDQEUFVNZHYIXJWLRKOM
Rotor Notch Positions:            V

Rotor Name:                       IV
Rotor Forward Wiring:             ESOVPZJAYQUIRHXLNFTGKDCMWB
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             HZWVARTNLGUPXQCEJMBSKDYOIF
Rotor Notch Positions:            J

Rotor Name:                       V
Rotor Forward Wiring:             VZBRGITYUPSDNHLXAWMJQOFECK
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             QCYLXWENFTZOSMVJUDKGIARPHB
Rotor Notch Positions:            Z

Rotor Name:                       VI
Rotor Forward Wiring:             JPGVOUMFYQBENHZRDKASXLICTW
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             SKXQLHCNWARVGMEBJPTYFDZUIO
Rotor Notch Positions:            ZM

Rotor Name:                       VII
Rotor Forward Wiring:             NZJHGRCXMYSWBOUFAIVLPEKQDT
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             QMGYVPEDRCWTIANUXFKZOSLHJB
Rotor Notch Positions:            ZM

Rotor Name:                       VIII
Rotor Forward Wiring:             FKQHTLXOCBJSPDZRAMEWNIUYGV
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             QJINSAYDVKBFRUHMCPLEWZTGXO
Rotor Notch Positions:            ZM

Rotor Name:                       BETA
Rotor Forward Wiring:             LEYJVCNIXWPBQMDRTAKZGFUHOS
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             RLFOBVUXHDSANGYKMPZQWEJICT
Rotor Notch Positions:            ZM

Rotor Name:                       GAMMA
Rotor Forward Wiring:             FSOKANUERHMBTIYCWLQPZXVGJD
Rotor Reverse Wiring:             ELPZHAXJNYDRKFCTSIBMGWQVOU
Rotor Notch Positions:            ZM

Reflector Name:                   A
Reflector Wiring:                 EJMZALYXVBWFCRQUONTSPIKHGD

Reflector Name:                   B
Reflector Wiring:                 YRUHQSLDPXNGOKMIEBFZCWVJAT

Reflector Name:                   C
Reflector Wiring:                 FVPJIAOYEDRZXWGCTKUQSBNMHL

Reflector Name:                   B THIN
Reflector Wiring:                 ENKQAUYWJICOPBLMDXZVFTHRGS

Reflector Name:                   C THIN
Reflector Wiring:                 RDOBJNTKVEHMLFCWZAXGYIPSUQ

Message:          Operation Barbarossa, 1941 Pt 1
Rotor order:      ['II', 'IV', 'V']
Ring positions:   [2, 21, 12]
Message key:      BLA
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       AV BS CG DL FU HZ IN KM OW RX
Plaintext:        AUFKL XABTE ILUNG XVONX KURTI
                 NOWAX KURTI NOWAX NORDW ESTLX
                 SEBEZ XSEBE ZXUAF FLIEG ERSTR
                 ASZER IQTUN GXDUB ROWKI XDUBR
                 OWKIX OPOTS CHKAX OPOTS CHKAX
                 UMXEI NSAQT DREIN ULLXU HRANG
                 ETRET ENXAN GRIFF XINFX RGTX
Ciphertext:       EDPUD NRGYS ZRCXN UYTPO MRMBO
                 FKTBZ REZKM LXLVE FGUEY SIOZV
                 EQMIK UBPMM YLKLT TDEIS MDICA
                 GYKUA CTCDO MOHWX MUUIA UBSTS
                 LRNBZ SZWNR FXWFY SSXJZ VIJHI
                 DISHP RKLKA YUPAD TXQSP INQMA
                 TLPIF SVKDA SCTAC DPBOP VHJK
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          Operation Barbarossa, 1941 Pt 2
Rotor order:      ['II', 'IV', 'V']
Ring positions:   [2, 21, 12]
Message key:      LSD
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       AV BS CG DL FU HZ IN KM OW RX
Plaintext:        DREIG EHTLA NGSAM ABERS IQERV
                 ORWAE RTSXE INSSI EBENN ULLSE
                 QSXUH RXROE MXEIN SXINF RGTXD
                 REIXA UFFLI EGERS TRASZ EMITA
                 NFANG XEINS SEQSX KMXKM XOSTW
                 XKAME NECXK
Ciphertext:       SFBWD NJUSE GQOBH KRTAR EEZMW
                 KPPRB XOHDR OEQGB BGTQV PGVKB
                 VVGBI MHUSZ YDAJQ IROAX SSSNR
                 EHYGG RPISE ZBOVM QIEMM ZCYSG
                 QDGRE RVBIL EKXYQ IRGIR QNRDN
                 VRXCY YTNJR
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          Scharnhorst (Konteradmiral Erich Bey), 1943
Rotor order:      ['III', 'VI', 'VIII']
Ring positions:   [1, 8, 13]
Message key:      UZV
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       AN EZ HK IJ LR MQ OT PV SW UX
Plaintext:        YKAEN ZAPMS CHZBF OCUVM RMDPY
                 COFHA DZIZM EFXTH FLOLP ZLFGG
                 BOTGO XGRET DWTJI QHLMX VJWKZ
                 UASTR
Ciphertext:       STEUE REJTA NAFJO RDJAN STAND
                 ORTQU AAACC CVIER NEUNN EUNZW
                 OFAHR TZWON ULSMX XSCHA RNHOR
                 STHCO
Encoding:         NOT VERIFIED
Decoding:         NOT VERIFIED

Message:          Enigma Instruction Manual, 1930
Rotor order:      ['II', 'I', 'III']
Ring positions:   [24, 13, 22]
Message key:      ABL
Reflector:        A
Plug pairs:       AM FI NV PS TU WZ
Plaintext:        FEIND LIQEI NFANT ERIEK OLONN
                 EBEOB AQTET XANFA NGSUE DAUSG
                 ANGBA ERWAL DEXEN DEDRE IKMOS
                 TWAER TSNEU STADT
Ciphertext:       GCDSE AHUGW TQGRK VLFGX UCALX
                 VYMIG MMNMF DXTGN VHVRM MEVOU
                 YFZSL RHDRR XFJWC FHUHM UNZEF
                 RDISI KBGPM YVXUZ
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          215 AAA FRA ABIRUXKP
Rotor order:      ['II', 'I', 'V']
Ring positions:   AAA
Message key:      FRA
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       AB IR UX KP
Plaintext:        ANBUL MEGRA ZGOES TINGS TRENG
                 GEHEI MEMEL DUNG
Ciphertext:       PCDAO NONEB CJBOG LYMEE YGSHR
                 YUBUJ HMJOQ ZLEX
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          PAGE_40_AFDFX (Norrköping Enigma message)
Rotor order:      ['V', 'I', 'IV']
Ring positions:   KSH
Message key:      SIN
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       BF DV EJ GM IY KP LZ NX OQ TW
Plaintext:        WAETI GKEIT SBERI QTVOM XSEQS
                 XDREI XVIER NULLX SEITE XZWOX
                 LFLXK DOXEI NSXXP REIXS TRIQX
                 NULLX LFLXK DOXEI NS
Ciphertext:       DSBDB DCOSG CYAMD SITWW ZUSDL
                 JBXAP VJMXL DKPUU IAPYY USNRJ
                 OHKGO WRCDK BNYZE LVKWY MWOPN
                 TVOSN FNOCF NUDSQ PU
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          PAGE_40_AYDJM (Norrköping Enigma message)
Rotor order:      ['V', 'I', 'IV']
Ring positions:   KSH
Message key:      OEL
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       BF DV EJ GM IY KP LZ NX OQ TW
Plaintext:        TAETI GKEIT SBERI QTVOM XSEQS
                 XDREI XVIER NULLX SONDE RANLA
                 GEXZW OXSXI TEXZW OXLGX KDOXR
                 OEMDR EIXXN ULLXS TRIQX NULLX
                 SEITE XDREI XLGXK DOXRO EMXDR
                 EIXNU LLXST RIQXZ WOXLG XKDOX
                 ROEMX DREI
Ciphertext:       YMZAX OZBCW GZFIG IMWXQ WGAKO
                 HLICK JOHFJ FVNAV AUHAW SXEIL
                 ABDJU BEUAQ SAMWJ WGUPO JZNLB
                 CDDAV BXBQO PTYRN ZTPUP ABQBO
                 JDJOX RJKMG LYJLQ PBAQX AIAVX
                 OGQHK TTOPH ZROKU MSSJL ONINR
                 GUBQF AJPP
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          PAGE_40_PYCMW (Norrköping Enigma message)
Rotor order:      ['I', 'III', 'V']
Ring positions:   XLG
Message key:      GRB
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       AK BZ CE DX GL JQ MU NV OT SY
Plaintext:        TAETI GSKEI TSBER IQTFU ERDEN
                 SEQSX DREIX VIERN ULLXS ONDER
                 ANLAG EZWOX SEITE NZAHL ZWOXL
                 GTKDO XROEM ZWOXN EUNMO MMAFU
                 ENFXL GXKDO XROEM ZWOX
Ciphertext:       PYZXK LLQFH ELFTJ AWURW BYZOW
                 LFHFM NFYMW EGDEC HKKGX HLTRQ
                 OEKIB FKLHH QWXLI QVMDV YTSZH
                 XUSJX DACDT BBWUJ IFEGI YZZJX
                 IYHLV WNRVE VQKMG WNMH
Encoding:         NOT VERIFIED
Decoding:         NOT VERIFIED

Message:          PAGE_40_ZBAQW (Norrköping Enigma message)
Rotor order:      ['I', 'III', 'V']
Ring positions:   XLG
Message key:      HJO
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       AK BZ CE DX GL JQ MU NV OT SY
Plaintext:        TAETI GKEIT SBIRI CHTVO MXSEQ
                 SXORE IXVIE RNULL XAQTX AUFGE
                 NOMME NXNUL LXMEF OERDE RTXLE
                 ITSTE LLEWA RXKRA KAUXL XGXKD
                 OXROE MXAQT X
Ciphertext:       OWTSB STOLY MVABU FAAUW ECRQY
                 ISIGZ DZMCH ECVVZ GIZOY UJIDT
                 FZUUO URDWV IMYOL XIOGN MKCYQ
                 QEYYT WITHH BYXAW AYXRT BUOOX
                 XPNET ERPZB I
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          PAGE_47_RTQSX (Norrköping Enigma message)
Rotor order:      ['IV', 'I', 'V']
Ring positions:   PVG
Message key:      KJO
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       AG BS CW EN FZ HJ IO KT LX PR
Plaintext:        KOMMA HIERZ UWIRD DERVE RKGHR
                 DERGE GENFU NKSTE LVEBE OBAQT
                 ETUND BXIAB GABEE IFESF UERDI
                 EABST MMEND EFUMK STELL ENIQT
                 WIQTV GENFU KKSPR UQESU SWPUN
                 KTDER EMPFA ENGER AUFSQ WNBUN
                 GSLUE CKEX
Ciphertext:       WNLWS YZUKN CQSHO QCLAZ LRJXD
                 RIFLD WNMOQ IBQZG JGIHR PTIWP
                 HYAUC EIJMM YXPTO NGQOX DAUKY
                 IVNQA OYVFC XKJNO JQVPU MUZHF
                 RMGGJ IUILK UIESJ KOOJN IYNBD
                 VBOXM UAKRE MODLB XHYGT XLUNF
                 NHWYW QGVO
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          PAGE_47_KRNV  (Swedish Enigma M3 intercept)
Rotor order:      ['VII', 'IV', 'VI']
Ring positions:   AGW
Message key:      RTA
Reflector:        B
Plug pairs:       BM DX EW GP JO KV NZ RT
Plaintext:        SEENA CHRIC HTLEU CHTSC HIFFE
                 MILSX BQPLA NNORD FUENF NUOME
                 RDREI EINSL IEGTW IEDER AUFST
                 ATION
Ciphertext:       IWNOX NFTRJ NPMRA WPZNK QECKK
                 TWIOB EXLBH FLHHJ LMYCZ GCYSL
                 CUDIJ DLGQQ PRYUR GKGTF KRQEP
                 IOVBI
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          M4 Schroeder Message
Rotor order:      ['BETA', 'II', 'IV', 'I']
Ring positions:   AANV
Message key:      MCSF
Reflector:        B THIN
Plug pairs:       AT CL DH EP FG IO JN KQ MU RX
Plaintext:        VVVJS CHREE DERJA UFGEL EITKU
                 RSFUE NFFUE NFGRA DNICH TSGEF
                 UNDEN YMARS CAIER EBEFO HLENE
                 SQUAD RATXS TANRO RTMAR QUANT
                 ONJOT ADREI NEUNN EUNFU ENFXS
                 SSOOO VIERY SEEDR EMYEI NSNUL
                 YYEIN SNULB EDECK TYZWO ACHTM
                 BSTEI GTYNB BELSI CHTEI NSSMT
                 
Ciphertext:       TMKFN WZXFF IIYXU TIHWM DHXIF
                 ZEQVK DVMQS WBQND YOZFT IWMJH
                 XHYRP ACZUG RREMV PANWX GTKTH
                 NRLVH KZPGM NMVSE CVCKH OINPL
                 HHPVP XKMBH OKCCP DPEVX VVHOZ
                 ZQBIY IEOUS EZNHJ KWHYD AGTXD
                 JDJKJ PKCSD SUZTQ CXJDV LPAMG
                 QKKSH PHVKS VPCBU WZFIZ PFUUP
                 
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          M4 Looks Message
Rotor order:      ['BETA', 'II', 'IV', 'I']
Ring positions:   AAAV
Message key:      VJNA
Reflector:        B THIN
Plug pairs:       AT BL DF GJ HM NW OP QY RZ VX
Plaintext:        VONVO NJLOO KSJHF FTTTE INSEI
                 NSDRE IZWOY YQNNS NEUNI NHALT
                 XXBEI ANGRI FFUNT ERWAS SERGE
                 DRUEC KTYWA BOSXL ETZTE RGEGN
                 ERSTA NDNUL ACHTD REINU LUHRM
                 ARQUA NTONJ OTANE UNACH TSEYH
                 SDREI YZWOZ WONUL GRADY ACHTS
                 MYSTO SSENA CHXEK NSVIE RMBFA
                 ELLTY NNNNN NOOOV IERYS ICHTE
                 INSNU LL
Ciphertext:       NCZWV USXPN YMINH ZXMQX SFWXW
                 LKJAH SHNMC OCCAK UQPMK CSMHK
                 SEINJ USBLK IOSXC KUBHM LLXCS
                 JUSRR DVKOH ULXWC CBGVL IYXEO
                 AHXRH KKFVD REWEZ LXOBA FGYUJ
                 QUKGR TVUKA MEURB VEKSU HHVOY
                 HABCJ WMAKL FKLMY FVNRI ZRVVR
                 TKOFD ANJMO LBGFF LEOPR GTFLV
                 RHOWO PBEKV WMUQF MPWPA RMFHA
                 GKXII BG
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

Message:          M4 SOLUTION OF THE LAST OF THE “HMS HURRICANE” INTERCEPTS
Rotor order:      ['BETA', 'VI', 'I', 'III']
Ring positions:   ZZTG
Message key:      NBHL
Reflector:        B THIN
Plug pairs:       BQ CR DI EJ KW MT OS PX UZ GH
Plaintext:        BOOTK LARXB EIJSC HNOOR BETWA
                 ZWOSI BENXN OVXSE CHSNU LCBMX
                 PROVI ANTBI SZWON ULXDE ZXBEN
                 OETIG EGLME SERYN OCHVI EFKLH
                 RXSTE HEMAR QUBRU NOBRU NFZWO
                 FUHFX LAGWW IEJKC HAEFE RJXNN
                 TWWWF UNFYE INSFU NFMBS TEIGE
                 NDYGU TESIW XDVVV JRASC H
Ciphertext:       HCEYZ TCSOP UPPZD ICQRD LWXXF
                 ACTTJ MBRDV CJJMM ZRPYI KHZAW
                 GLYXW TMJPQ UEFSZ BOTVR LALZX
                 WVXTS LFFFA UDQFB WRRYA PSBOW
                 JMKLD UYUPF UQDOW VHAHC DWAUA
                 RSWTK OFVOY FPUFH VZFDG GPOOV
                 GRMBP XXZCA NKMON FHXPC KHJZB
                 UMXJW XKAUO DXZUC VCXPF T
Encoding:         VERIFIED
Decoding:         VERIFIED

>>>
My1stMicro Printed Circuit Board
Enigma machine toy
We decided to design and build a miniature, battery operated, toy Enigma machine for kids, with the following specifications:
  1. Authentic Enigma encryption and decryption
  2. Slim, hand-held device
  3. Battery operated
  4. On-Off switch
  5. Read-in-the-dark display for both settings and messages
  6. Non-volatile storage of settings
  7. Single press-button rotary-encoder type control
  8. Built-in Morse code beeper

We had a previous design of a similar Arduino product, which we called My1stMicro, that we used as a starting point. The device already had an Arduino microcontroller, an oLED display and a single press-button rotary-encoder type control on a small PCB. With a redesign for a suitable case and the addition of a beeper, it would do the job. Of course the Python 3 code we developed for the simulator above would have to be converted into C and a Morse code generator added. The design of an easy to use, Graphical User Interface for the tiny 0.6-inch oLED display would also be quite a challenge.
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